Review the “Worldviews in Nursing Theories” section of Chapter 3 in Called to Care: A Christian Worldview for Nursing. Select two of the definitions of health provided in the text. Within the context of the broader worldview, describe the two selected definitions of health of the six worldview concepts and nursing theories described in your textbook. How would you define health?
Below is a Sample Solution.
Remember! This is just a sample. You can get a custom paper
from one of our expert writers.
Jean Watson’s “Philosophy and Science of Caring” and Sr. Callista Roy’s “Adaption Model” are the two worldviews and definitions chosen.
“Health is consciousness; human-environmental energy field,” says Jean Watson. Phenomenal field unitary consciousness: unbroken wholeness and connectedness of all” (Shelly & Miller, 2006), which means that the body is connected to everything around us and self-heals throughout. A self-caring person who nurtures, understands, and assists their body is a fully foundational integrated self, using methods such as reflection and meditation. “The absence of illness, or the presence of efforts leading to the absence of illness, is defined as an elevated level of overall physical, mental, and social functioning; a general adaptive-maintenance level of daily functioning; and the absence of illness, or the presence of efforts leading to the absence of illness.” (Jean Watson Theory)
Health, according to Sr. Callista Roy, is “a condition and process of being and becoming integrated and whole that reflects the person and environmental mutuality” (Shelly & Miller, 2006), implying that we are biologically, psychologically, and socially related as part of one integrated system. Aside from these two definitions, I would define health as a combination of everything in our environment that assists us in being healthy. Health is more than just the absence of disease; it is a state of total bodily, mental, social, and spiritual well-being.
I.)Jean Watson’s “Philosophy and Science of Caring”
“Health is consciousness; human-environmental energy field,” says Jean Watson. Phenomenal field unitary consciousness: unbroken wholeness and connectedness of all” (Shelly & Miller, 2006), which means that the body is connected to everything around us and self-heals throughout. A self-caring person who nurtures, understands, and assists their body is a fully foundational integrated self, using methods such as reflection and meditation. “The absence of illness, or the presence of efforts leading to the absence of illness, is defined as an elevated level of overall physical, mental, and social functioning; a general adaptive-maintenance level of daily functioning; and the absence of illness, or the presence of efforts leading to the absence of illness.” (Jean Watson Theory).
Caring, according to Jean Watson, regenerates life energies and enhances our capacities. The advantages are immense, and they foster personal and professional self-actualization. Caring is a win-win situation for both the patient and the nurse, as well as the other members of the health care team.
A human being, health, environment/society, and nursing are the four major themes in the Philosophy and Science of Caring. “A valued person in and of himself or herself to be cared for, appreciated, fostered, understood, and assisted,” writes Jean Watson, “in general a philosophical perspective of a person as a fully functional complete self.” The sum of a human’s parts is seen as bigger than and distinct from the sum of his or her parts.” The absence of sickness, or the existence of efforts leading to the absence of illness, is described as a high level of overall physical, mental, and social functioning; a general adaptive-maintenance level of daily functioning; and the absence of illness. Watson’s definition of environment/society addresses the idea that nurses have existed in every civilization and that the nursing profession’s culture transmits a caring attitude from generation to generation as a unique manner of dealing with its environment.
Nursing is concerned with promoting health, avoiding illness, caring for the sick, and recovering health, according to the nursing paradigm. It focuses on disease prevention and treatment as well as health promotion. Watson believed that holistic health care is essential to the nursing profession’s practice of caring. Nursing, according to her, is “a human science of people and human health-illness experiences mediated through professional, personal, scientific, esthetic, and ethical human interactions.” Assessment, plan, intervention, and evaluation are all steps in the nursing process defined in the model, just as they are in scientific research. The evaluation entails observing, identifying, and reviewing the problem, as well as formulating a hypothesis. The nurse can use a care plan to define how variables will be inspected or measured, as well as what data will be collected. The implementation of the treatment plan and data collecting is referred to as interventions. Finally, the assessment evaluates the data, interprets the findings, and may lead to the development of a new hypothesis.
Seven assumptions are made by Watson’s model: Only interpersonally can caring be properly exhibited and practiced. Caring is made up of creative variables that lead to the fulfillment of particular human needs. Effective care enhances one’s or a family’s health and development. Caring replies accept the patient for who he or she is now and what he or she might become in the future. A caring environment promotes potential development while allowing the patient to pick the best course of action for him or herself at any given time. The science of caring goes hand in hand with the science of curing. Nursing is based on the concept of caring.
The first three creative variables are the science of caring’s “philosophical underpinning,” while the following seven are derived from it. The following are the ten key causative factors:
The establishment of a humanistic-altruistic value system, which begins at a young age with parental values. The nurse’s life experiences acquired knowledge, and exposure to the humanities all influence her value system. It is said to be required for the nurse’s development, which fosters altruistic conduct toward others.
The establishment of faith-hope, which is necessary for the healing and restorative processes. When modern science fails to provide a patient with a sense of well-being, a nurse can still employ faith-hope to deliver a sense of well-being through a belief system that is important to the patient.
The development of self-awareness and sensitivity to others, which examines the need for nurses to feel an emotion as it arises. To relate sincerely and sympathetically with patients, a nurse’s feelings must be developed. The nurse is more genuine as a result of her efforts to become more empathetic. This promotes self-actualization and growth in both the nurse and the patients with whom she interacts. Only when nurses create person-to-person relationships do they enhance health and higher-level functioning.
The acceptance and promotion of both positive and negative feelings, which must be recognized and allowed for in a loving relationship due to the way feelings affect one’s ideas and conduct. The nurse and the patient can better understand the conduct caused by the feelings if they are aware of them.
The systematic use of the scientific method to problem-solving and decision-making to achieve control, predictability, and self-correction. Caring science should not always be objective and neutral. The nurse should focus on the learning process as much as the teaching process while promoting interpersonal teaching-learning. Understanding a person’s point of view
II.) Sr. Callista Roy’s “Adaption Model”
Health, according to Sr. Callista Roy, is “a condition and process of being and becoming integrated and whole that reflects the person and environmental mutuality” (Shelly & Miller, 2006), implying that we are biologically, psychologically, and socially related as part of one integrated system. Aside from these two definitions, I would define health as a combination of everything in our environment that assists us in being healthy. Health is more than just the absence of disease; it is a state of total bodily, mental, social, and spiritual well-being. Though the healthcare sector has hard and fast rules, it is also adaptive, and nurses must be adaptable to offer the best care for their patients. After all, each patient is unique, and care should be tailored to their specific needs. Sister Callista Roy’s Adaptive Model of Nursing might help you better comprehend the adaptive nature of nursing.
Nurses can focus on the role of nursing and its applications rather than medical practice when they employ models. Furthermore, it facilitates systematic, deliberate, controlled, and effective patient care. Roy Adaptation Model is one of the most widely utilized models in nursing. The goal of nursing, according to the Roy adaption model, is to promote compliance and life expectancy. To provide a holistic treatment, the Roy Adaptation Model analyzes the patient in physiologic mode, self-concept mode, role function mode, and interdependence mode. The application of the Roy Adaptation Model in the management of a patient who was diagnosed with breast cancer and had breast-conserving surgery is described in this article.
Sister Callista Roy created the Adaptation Model of Nursing in 1976. Roy became convinced of the significance of defining nursing as a societal service after working with Dorothy E. Johnson. As a result, she started working on her concept, with the purpose of nursing being to promote adaption. While developing course content for nursing students at Mount St. Mary’s College, she began structuring her nursing philosophy. She presented her views as the foundation for a comprehensive nursing program.
A person is a bio-psycho-social being in ongoing contact with a changing environment, according to Roy’s paradigm. To adapt, he or she employs both natural and learning systems. Individuals, as well as groups such as families, organizations, and communities, are included in the model. This includes the entire society. According to the Adaptation Model, health is an unavoidable aspect of a person’s existence that is represented by a health-illness continuum. Health can also be defined as a condition or a process of integration and wholeness.
The environment is divided into three categories: focal, which is internal or external and directly confronts the person; contextual, which includes all stimuli present in the situation that contribute to the effect of the focal stimulus; and residual, whose effects in the current situation are unknown. All situations, circumstances, and influences that surround and influence the growth and behavior of people and groups, with special attention to the mutuality of people and earth resources, including focused, contextual, and residual stimuli. Two subsystems are also included in the model. Perceptual and information processing, learning, judgment, and emotion are all part of the cognate subsystem, which is a primary coping mechanism. A regulator subsystem is a form of adaptive process that automatically adapts to changes in the environment via neuronal, chemical, and endocrine coping channels.
Some explicit assumptions are made by the Adaptive Model: The individual is a bio-psycho-social entity. The person is always interacting with their surroundings, which are constantly changing. A person’s innate and acquired coping mechanisms, which are biological, psychological, and social, are used to cope with a changing world. A person’s health and disease are unavoidable aspects of existence. A person must adapt to respond favorably to environmental changes. The stimulus a person is exposed to, as well as his level of adaptation, determines how well he adapts. The adaptability level of a person is such that it includes a zone showing the range of stimulation that will result in a good reaction.
Nursing’s purpose is to encourage adaptation in the four adaptive modes. By examining behaviors and variables that influence adaptive capacities and acting to improve environmental interactions, nurses also promote adaptation for individuals and groups in the four adaptive modes, contributing to health, quality of life, and dying with dignity. Physiologic needs, self-concept, role function, and interdependence are the Four Adaptive Modes in Roy’s Adaptation Model.
A six-step nursing approach is included in the Adaptation Model. The initial level of evaluation focuses on the patient’s conduct. The second level of evaluation focuses on the patient’s stimuli. The patient’s diagnosis. Setting health-related objectives for the patient. Intervention is used to take action to achieve those objectives. The outcome is assessed to see if the objectives were met.
Adapting the nursing care plan based on the patient’s progress toward health should be done by the nurse and other health care workers throughout the nursing process.
Watson’s philosophy and science of caring. (2020, July 21). Nursing Theory. https://nursing-theory.org/theories-and-models/watson-philosophy-and-science-of-caring.php
Review the “Worldviews in nursing theories” section ofChapter 3 in called to care: A Christian worldview… (n.d.). Homework Help Online workLib. https://www.homeworklib.com/qaa/1332548/review-the-worldviews-in-nursing-theories-section
Roy’s adaptation model of nursing. (2020, July 21). Nursing Theory. https://nursing-theory.org/theories-and-models/roy-adaptation-model.php
Nursing approach based on Roy adaptation model in a patient undergoing breast conserving surgery for breast cancer. (n.d.). PubMed Central (PMC). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5351537/
Jean Watson’s theory of human caring | Hospital in Redlands, CA. (n.d.). Redlands Community Hospital. https://www.redlandshospital.org/nursing-excellence/jean-watsons-theory-of-human-caring/
Watson, J., & Woodward, T. K. (2020). Jean Watson’s theory of human caring. SAGE Publications Limited.
Turkel, M. C., Watson, J., & Giovannoni, J. (2018). Caring science or science of caring. Nursing Science Quarterly, 31(1), 66-71.
Roy, C., & Zhan, L. (2006). Sister Callista Roy’s adaptation model and its applications. ME Parker (Ed.), Nursing theories & nursing practice, 268-280.
Frederickson, K. (2011). Callista Roy’s adaptation model.
Senesac, P. A. M. E. L. A., & Roy, S. C. (2015). Sister Callista Roy’s adaptation model. Nursing theories and nursing practice, 153-164.